节日简介】 国际劳动节又称“五一国际劳动节”、“国际示威游行日”(International Labor Day或May Day)，是世界上大多数国家的劳动节。定在每年的五月一日。它是全世界“劳动者”共同拥有的节日。
特别五一 五月劳动节的起源，除欧洲之外，也有“劳动节”这一节日。比如美国，但美国的劳动节不是五一，而是每年的 9 月 2 日 ，即所谓的 Labour Day ，直译的话应该是“工人节”或“劳工节”，虽然，“五一劳动节”的起源是在 19 世纪的美国。
那是 1886 年，美国工潮的中心是芝加哥。 5 月 1 日 的全国性大罢工使美国的经济陷于瘫痪。 3 年后，也就是 1889 年，在巴黎召开的国际工人大会将 5 月 1 日 定为“国际劳动节”，以纪念以芝加哥为主导的美国工人大罢工。此后， 5 月 1 日 便成了全球性工人团结的象征。
严肃的和狂欢的劳动节 离五一劳动节原意最近的莫过于亚洲一些国家工会组织的争取劳工权利的五月集会。在菲律宾和泰国，每当 5 月 1 日 ，工会便组织人们上街游行为提高工资和争取基本权利而斗争。
[Edit this paragraph]【Introduction】 FestivalInternational Labour Day, also known as "Labour Day", "International Day demonstrations" (International Labor Day or May Day), is the world's Labour Day in most countries. Set on May 1 of each year. It is the world's "working" a holiday in celebration.
May 1 International Labor Day from Chicago, the city workers strike. May 1, 1886,ChicagoThe 216,816 workers fighting for the eight-hour work but hold the big strike, through arduous and bloody struggle, finally won. To commemorate this great labor movement, in July 1889 the Second International declared May 1 of each year as International Labour Day. This decision immediately positive response from workers around the world. May 1, 1890, Europe and the United States to lead the working class to the streets, held a grand demonstration and assembly, for the legitimate rights and interests. From then on, every day working people around the world should rally, parade, celebration, and public holidays.
[Edit this paragraph]【Origin】 FestivalLabour Day Information
At that time, the United States and many countries in Europe, and gradually developed into the imperialist stage of capitalism, in order to stimulate rapid economic development, to extract more surplus value, in order to protect the high-speed operation of the capitalist machine, the capitalists continue to increase working time and labor-intensive approach to the brutal exploitation of workers.
In the U.S., workers have to work every day from 14 to 16 hours, some even up to 18 hours, but the wages are very low.MassachusettsSupervision of a shoe factory once said the words: "Let a 18-year-old able-bodied able-bodied young man, here beside the work of any one machine, I can make him into a gray hair in the age of 22." Heavy proletarian class oppression aroused great indignation. They know the conditions to fight for survival, only together, through the strike movement and the struggle against the capitalists. Put forward the slogan of the workers strike, is demanding the eight hour working day.
In 1877, the first nationwide strike in U.S. history began. The working class took to the streets demonstrations, to the Government to improve the working and living condition, reduced working hours, the implementation of eight-hour day. Strike soon, the team continues to expand, increase in the number of trade union members, local workers have also participated in the strike movement.
Under strong pressure in the labor movement,U.S. CongressAlthough forced to develop the eight-hour day law. However, the vicious capitalists simply ignore the law just a dead letter, the workers are still in dire straits, and has never tortured capitalists. Intolerable workers decided to fight this fight for the right to life, to a new peak, ready to hold more large-scale strikes.
October 1884,United StatesAndCanadaEight international and national labor organizations, held a meeting in Chicago, decided May 1, 1886 a general strike to force the capitalists to implement the eight-hour working day. The day finally arrived. May 1, the United States more than 20,000 enterprises, 35 million workers took to the streets lay-off, held a massive demonstration, various color, various types of workers together for a general strike. Chicago only a city, there are 45,000 workers took to the streets. This time, the United States, major industrial sector in a paralyzed state, the train became stiff snake shop is silent, all the warehouses are also close and seal. At that time workers in the strike was a popular "eight-hour song," sang the song:
"We must become a kind of world that we are tired of white and hard to get only a bare light work rates, there was never time for us to think. We News smell the flowers, we have to the sun, we believe: God only allows eight-hour working day. We docks, workshops and factories, call our team for eight hours work, eight hours rest and eight hours to himself! "
Passionate voice singing voice of the workers to sing the common wish of the world proletariat, but also infected with the masses, they have solidarity with the strike movement of workers, the strike movement into the new high tide. Strike movement has shown great strength to the Government and the capitalists of great panic, they refused to agree the conditions of the workers, they reveal their ferocious side. May 3, Chicago, the Administration has finally removed the "democratic" mask, the violent repression of workers. They organized a strike destroyer under the protection of the police strike of workers entering into force, deliberately creating confusion as an excuse, shot and killed six workers on the spot. The atrocities aroused great indignation among the city workers, they determined to avenge the dead workers brothers!
The event is organized by the International Workers of non-governmental organizations, the activities center in Chicago, businessmen and the government demonstrated the activity more and more revolutionary feel fear, local business leaders asked to increase the number of police and army. Commercial Club of Chicago in 2000 dollars to buy guns for the alert to deal with the strike, on May 1 of this procession was the Chicago textile workers, shoe workers, a lot of support workers, housing renovation, May 3, police began to strike the crowd opened fire, killing four people wounded, some non-government rally in the square the next day to call for a serious protest against the government's violent repression.
This assembly process without incident, but in the end a speaker mounted the podium, and it began to rain, the square only a few hundred people, 180 police entered the square dispersal, when a bomb fly the middle to the police, killing one and wounding seven policemen, police immediately opened fire on the crowd, killing one and wounding several people.
Unable to determine who threw the bomb, the incident became a Labor Day parade attack the handle, the police raid suspect's home and office objects, hundreds of people under arrest without charges, especially those of the event leader is attacked , 8 active advocate of the Chicago activities were allegations of conspiracy and attempted bombing square, the court in the absence of sufficient evidence to trial, the verdict of which 4 were on November 11, 1887 hanging. (Another suicide in prison, the other three were released until 1893).
[Edit this paragraph]Significance】 【FestivalMay 1, 1886 The fight is being suppressed, but after that all countries of the working class continue to struggle, finally won the "8-hour day" and "Labour Day." The festival will always be with workers throughout the world, as the protection of labor rights.Workers through the struggle with the stubborn, indomitable fighting spirit of the heroic, to secure their legitimate rights and interests of human civilization, democracy and progress in history.
To commemorate this great labor movement, in July 1889, the Organization held in EngelsSecond InternationalAnnounced the establishment of the General Assembly every year on May 1 as International Labor Day, referred to as "51." This decision immediately positive response from workers around the world. May 1, 1890, Europe and the United States to lead the working class to the streets, held a grand demonstration and assembly, for the legitimate rights and interests. From then on, every day, working people around the world have to assembly, of procession and celebration.
[Edit this paragraph]】 【Chinese festivals
OriginChinese people celebrate the Labour Day activities can be traced back to 1918. This year, a number of revolutionary intellectuals in Shanghai, Suzhou, Hangzhou, Hankou introduced to the mass distribution of "51" flyers.
May 1, 1920,Beijing,Shanghai,Canton,Jiujiang,TangshanAnd other industrial cities of the working masses enormously towards the downtown, held a massive demonstration, assembly.ZhaoSpecialized in "New Youth"Published" "51" movement history "to introduce" 51 "section of the history of workers in countries such as U.S. law mark" 51 "campaign, calling on Chinese workers this year" 51 "as the awakening of the dates. Chen also made to celebrate the holiday, "women workers in Hunan, Shanghai Welfare spinning" article, exposed the capitalist exploitation of workers in the truth of surplus value. Chen shipping warehouse in Shanghai Federation of Industry were "working class's consciousness," the speech, explained, "Labor Creates the World," "people who work the most precious the most useful" point of view. In Beijing, some young people out publicity, dissemination, "May 1 Labor Declaration," to arouse the workers against exploitation, to fight for their rights. This is the first commemoration of "51" International Day of the activities, but also the history of China's first "51" Labor Day.
1921 "51" on the eve of the communist group in Beijing in the summer the members of Deng, who founded the school Changxindian tutorial work, workers learn to sing "51 Memorial Song." The lyrics are: "Beautiful, free, world stars, fight my blood, for his sacrifice, we should remove all power system, the net, remember May 1 of the Auspicious. Red flag flying, emptied of Ming Road, Building on Strengths, gain need, regardless of rich and poor, the only responsibility of mutual aid, we would like to Sarkozy ahead. "This is the first majestic powerful song, Changxindian labor practice by school teachers and the progress of Beijing University students formed a common Creating.
September 1999, the State Council to reform the system of the new statutory holidays, annualNational DaySpring Festival and the "51" statutory holiday plus days off, national holiday for 7 days. Since then, the three "Golden Week" set off the spending of heat to become the new highlight in our economic life,Holiday EconomyBecome relish a new topic. Has been basically formed. From November 9, 2007, through multi-country study demonstrated more adjustment programs in the PRC statutory holidays, Xinhua, the National Development and Reform Commission website, as well as Sina, Sohu and other sites to publish and carry out opinion polls. Adjustment covers the Spring Festival, Chinese New Year holiday starting time from the first month started this adjustment for the New Year's Eve; "51" by 7 days to adjust to 3 days, a decrease of 4 days; Tomb Sweeping Day, Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-Autumn additional statutory holiday, the holiday one day . Golden Week will be history.
SignificanceInternational Labor Day is about the workers through the struggle, with tenacity, courage and unyielding fighting spirit to secure their legitimate rights and interests, is the historical progress of human civilization and democracy, this is the essence of Labour Day. Therefore, it was such a focus on Labor Day.
NewbornAfter the founding of new China, the Central People's Government Administration Council in December 1949 to May 1 Labor Day as a statutory, national holiday. Every year on this day, celebrating the country, people are wearing festive costumes, happily gathered in parks, theaters, squares, celebrate the meetings or participate in various sports and recreational activities, and to recognize outstanding contributions of workers.
[Edit this paragraph]【】 FestivalsAnnual "51," International Labor Day came around again, to commemorate the unity of working people around the world fighting festival, usually held around the world celebrate accordingly. However, not all countries will be on May 1 as Labor Day 定, those in the off "51" countries, the specific way to celebrate and habits vary greatly, a Qilai Women may wish to look at other countries, how the degree of some through Labor Day.
In the "51" National Unity day off, there will be some big cities in the capital and related celebrations, but generally do not scale too. 1, a holiday in Thailand this year, 2 compensatory.
May 1-3 National Day holiday, when the political parties will gather in Red Square, so to speak, ordinary citizens will hold processions.
1 day off, weekend and 51 this year coincide, but only one day a German, and not compensatory. It is reported that each year many people in Germany will take 51 this opportunity to make trouble, to protest the government to require tax cuts. This year is no exception, there are disturbances from the 30th until the 1st place, many supermarkets looted, cars smashed, burned.
1 holiday, on the 2nd day off. No celebration.
1 holiday, as is the 3rd National Day of Poland, and some units will be closed from 1 to 3. May 1, the Polish national union councils, the Democratic Left Alliance Party, Social Democratic Party, labor union and other left-wing groups and political parties held a celebration of "51" mass procession, the procession the banner of "8-hour working day" and other slogans .
United States -
Coincides with the weekend, the United States 30, 1, to take a holiday, but in the past only in the 1 day off, no celebration.
Italy acknowledged "51" International Labor Day, the Government also said respect for labor, but in general people are not held in special celebration, there is no national "May 1" holiday.
May 1 this year is Children's Day in Mexico, but Mexico is not a national holiday. Previously had in the 51-day strike this or processions, but this year did not.
[Edit this paragraph]【Related Topics】
Special 51May Day's origins, in addition to Europe, but also a "Labor Day" the holiday. Such as the United States, the U.S. Labor Day is not 51, but every year on Sept. 2, the so-called Labour Day, literal translation would be "Workers Day" or "Labor Day", though, "Labour Day" in originated in the 19th century, the United States.
That was 1886, the U.S. strikes the center of Chicago. May 1 nationwide strike to paralyze the U.S. economy. 3 years later, in 1889, workers at the Paris International Conference will be held on May 1st as "International Day" to commemorate the United States led to the Chicago workers strike. Thereafter, on May 1 became a symbol of solidarity of workers worldwide.
Serious and the carnival of the DayFrom the original intent of the recent Labour Day in some Asian countries than trade unions fight for workers rights rally in May. In the Philippines and Thailand, when on May 1, the trade unions will organize people into the streets to fight for higher wages and the basic right to struggle.
Look at South America, Brazil's "May Day." Trade union organization came forward march rally, but the people involved are mostly ordinary people. This continued a week-long festival. People dressed in colorful clothes, high-spirited mood, singing and dancing. Insiders know that this is a for justice, employment and higher wages for the struggle; not insiders thought it was a carnival in Brazil too!
"51" overtime"51" golden weeks immediately to, for office workers who work overtime during the holiday season, how much should be paid compensation after labor? Learned from the labor security supervision organs, as from April 1 this year, adjusted the minimum wage, so this year's "May 1" Golden Week overtime minimum wage be increased accordingly.
The new minimum wage overtime calculation
The implementation of monthly-paid workers, employers to pay overtime wages in its calculation of daily wage workers themselves can be unified by the monthly wage divided by the number of days on the system for conversion. Annual average monthly number of employees working for the 20.92 days, on average working time of 167.4 hours, daily and hourly wages of workers should be discounted here.
According to newly released city 670 yuan minimum monthly wage calculation, daily wage standard is about 670 yuan ÷ 20.92 天 32.03 yuan / day; hourly wage of about 32.03 yuan ÷ 8 hours 4 yuan / hour. May 1 to 3, employees work overtime every 1 day (8 hours), the overtime pay is calculated as 32.03 yuan × 300% × 1 天 96.09 yuan / day; such as 4 to 7 May to work overtime, the employer should First of all arrangements for workers compensatory, compensatory leave can not be arranged, and 1 day (8 hour) of overtime pay formula for 32.03 yuan × 200% × 1 天 64.06 yuan / day.
How to determine overtime pay 300%
In accordance with the "Labor Law" and "Tianjin wage payment requirements," this year "51" golden weeks, the first three days are statutory holidays, that is, May 1, 2, 3, overtime workers enterprises should be in accordance with the employees no less than daily or hourly wage, pay overtime wages to 300%. 4 days after a rest day, that is, on May 4, 5, 6, 7, overtime, the employer should first arrange workers compensatory, compensatory leave can not be arranged, and in accordance with the employees no less than day salary or hourly wage, pay overtime wages to 200%.
In addition, the base for calculating overtime pay shall not be less than the worker's wages where the job should be paid; if less than the minimum wage in the city, Zeyi city new minimum wage as the base. Furthermore, a piece-rate wage workers, in the "51" to work on statutory holidays, according to the statutory working time of not less than 300% piece rate of wages paid; to work on rest days, according to the piece not less than the statutory working hours Price paid 200% of compensation.
Employers can not force overtime
Employers can not force workers to work overtime. As the production and management needs of the employer, after consultation with trade unions and workers can work longer hours, usually not more than one hour a day; for special reasons to extend the working hours of laborers in the protection of health conditions, longer working hours not more than three hours a day, but not more than 36 hours per month. If the employer violates the above provisions, the right of workersRefusalOvertime.
In addition, more than 7 months pregnant female workers, the employer may arrange to extend their working hours and night shifts. Not to assign women breastfeeding babies under one year stipulated by the State during the third stage in physical strength of labor and lactation taboo in other labor, shall not cause the extension of working hours and night shifts.
In special conditions, the employer requires the employee to work longer hours, the employee can not refuse: The first event of natural disasters, accidents or for other reasons, threatening life and health of workers and property in need of emergency treatment; Second, production equipment , transportation routes, public facilities that affects production and public interests must be promptly repair; Third, the law and administrative regulations of the other cases.
Taken together, how to pay for overtime hours
Approved by the labor security department to implement an integrated system of calculating working time employer, the consolidated total actual working time period over the total working time of part of the statutory standard, as extended working hours, shall not be less than my hourly wage of 150 % pay overtime wages; for working on statutory holidays, and I shall not be less than daily or hourly wage, pay overtime wages to 300%.
Approval by the labor and social security work to implement the system from time to time the employing unit, in the implementation of the system to work irregular workers on the job, from time to implement the relevant provisions of overtime pay. Implementation of full-time or daily basis and non-wage workers labor hours, if on Saturdays and Sundays to provide the labor, as work, not entitled to overtime wages. If statutory holidays provided the labor, the employer should be required to pay overtime wages.
"51" off-the proportion of different seven-day overtime
According to reports, "51" during the calculation of overtime pay standard is May 1, 2, 3, for working on statutory holidays, the day I shall not be less than 300% of wages or hours of overtime pay .
Municipal Labor and Social Security Bureau stressed that the calculation of overtime pay shall not be less than the employee base and posts to get their wages paid; if less than the minimum wage in the city, Zeyi the minimum wage as the base city. State organs, institutional organizations, social groups, overtime pay the basic wage base to my base. In addition, the implementation of a daily wage system and wage system of part-time employment hours for workers, if on Saturdays and Sundays to provide the labor, as work, not entitled to overtime wages. If the statutory rest days to provide the labor, the employer should be required to pay overtime wages.
Golden Week overtime formula
Currently, state regulations the Annual and Monthly average number of working days and working time was 20.92 days and 167.4 hours, daily and hourly wages of workers should be discounted here. To a staff position on the wages of 750 yuan shall be calculated, the standard daily wage of about 35.85 yuan, hourly wage of about 4.48 yuan. Overtime on New Year's day (8 hours), the employee overtime pay is calculated as: 4.48 yuan × 300% × 8 hours = 107.52 yuan; January 2 and 3 extra days (8 hours overtime per day), the calculation of employee overtime The formula for: 4.48 × 200% × 16 hours = 143.36 yuan. If the worker to work overtime, the employer failed to pay wages in accordance with relevant provisions of the remuneration, the worker may apply to the labor security supervision organs at all levels of reporting and complaint.
"51" three categories of persons not allowed to work overtime
Employers can not force employees to work overtime, no right to wage deduction. If the employer without prior consultation with staff and trade union or employer arranges for overtime in violation of labor laws and regulations of the relevant provisions of the employee the right to refuse overtime. At the same time the following circumstances shall not be arranged for staff to work overtime:
1, female employees during pregnancy, should not extend their working time;
2, female employees more than 7 months pregnant, the employer can not arrange for them to work overtime;
3, female employees in the nursing period, the employer can not arrange for them to work overtime.